I've been an avid photographer for more than 30 years and during the first 20 or so I would often come home thinking I had some great photos of beautiful places and then find the camera did not remember it the way I thought I saw it.  With film, I didn't feel comfortable experimenting with different techniques but digital has opened up lots of opportunities to learn by doing.  I've gotten some help, too, from classes and friends.  So, here are some tips and ideas from some of my BFOs (blinding flash of the obvious).  I'd appreciate your comments and suggestions so we both learn something from this. 

If you are looking for the "good reference" links that I have put together, I've added them as a separate page under the "About Us" menu.

Snapshots to Photographs - Sports

November 23, 2013  •  Leave a Comment

One of the most popular places to take photos is a sporting event.  This is true photojournalism – by definition the subjects will be moving and you won’t have any control over the lighting. There are few “do-over” opportunities for a home run or winning goal. I have been doing some work for Special Olympics and I’ve picked up a few tips that you might find useful.

A lot of people pull out their smartphone and snap shots from the stands and are disappointed in the results. Go with a purpose – get a shot to hang on the wall. The shot you will frame is one that tells a story of the game.  Instead of taking a shot of the players backs as they face the field get up high and make a shot of the stadium or get close and catch your athlete’s expression. Wouldn’t you like to show him or her concentrating on the runner about to pass the baton in a relay, make a herculean effort to throw that shot-put farther than ever before, or save the 30th attempted shot on goal?

I try for three “levels” of shots at a sports event. 

  1. Set the context with a shot of the venue.  This could be the entry to the field with its name on the door or a wide-angle view of the entire stadium inside.
  2. Capture the action as the teams and athletes warm up, compete, and pack up.
  3. Show the emotion of the competitors, coaches, officials, and fans

Your “wall hanger” will probably have some combination of the effort, the agony, the thrill and the pride in a game.  To do that, you have to get the faces and there are lots of very expressive faces at sporting events. 

  • First, honor the athletes and their safety; don’t distract them during a play with movements, flash, etc.  Remember that younger players are more easily distracted than mature players and teams.
  • Get out of your seat and get as close as the officials and coaches will allow.  It’s best to ask permission first.  Volunteer to give them some of your shots for the club historian or their own social media site.
  • Avoid clutter in the background – are you looking at some empty bleachers or do you have the visitors’ port-a-potties in your shot? Move to another side to remove distractions from the background.
  • Know the sport and position yourself with the sun at your back if you are outside and near a goal or finish line if you are inside.  You want the players’ faces to be lit as they are coming toward you.
  • Know the team and follow a player, not the ball. You will get some great shots if you can act like Wayne Gretzky and focus on where the puck will be, not where it has been.

If you are trying to capture the emotion on the field, it may be difficult with a smartphone but you can get great shots of the sideline and the spectators.  If your smartphone or point-n-shoot has a zoom feature, you may be able to get some shots on the field but watch for the emotions.  If you can’t see them your smartphone probably won’t either. Here are a few tips for setting up your camera to improve your chances of getting that wall-hanger when the moment happens.  These suggestions are oriented to a DSLR but you can apply them to a point-n-shoot, too.

  • Take your camera off “auto”. The programmer who set up “auto” was thinking of the 80% solution for your kids jumping around on the couch while you ask them to say cheese, not swimmers diving in a pool or soccer players running down the field. Shutter priority (“Tv” for time-value on Canon or “S” for shutter on Nikon DSLRs) is a good option for sports.   
  • For indoor sports try to use a mid to long zoom lens like a 70-200 and for outdoor sports, go as long as you can with something out to 300mm or even 400mm.
  • Use the widest aperture available on your lens, generally f2.8 to 5.6. The objective is to blur the background and anything in the foreground that may be between you and the players.
  • Select a shutter speed of 1/800 to freeze the action. Use a shutter speed of 1/45 to get some motion blur in arms or legs but be careful to keep the faces sharp.
  • For indoor sports you will probably have to drop down to a shutter speed of about 1/250 to freeze action and work with the lighting.  Inside a gym you will wish for a wide aperture lens – f2.8 is going to get you many more “keepers”. You may have to increase your ISO speed to get the shutter speed you need for stop action photos.
  • Use AI Servo autofocus mode and set the camera to focus using a focus point near the center or a little higher than center of your frame to ‘follow-focus’ with the moving players.
  • Make pictures after a play or a race to get the reactions.  Don’t forget the coaches, officials, cheerleaders and faces in the crowd.  Watch for the incidents.  Penalties, yellow cards, and fouls make for great drama in the players, the coaches, the bench, and the fans. You want to have a few others to give to that club historian.
  • Don’t be afraid to get your camera out when the weather is bad.  Bring a gallon sized freezer bag, put the camera in there with the business end of the lens sticking out and shoot away.  There is a lot of drama in bad weather.
  • Use large capacity memory cards - say 8 gigabytes – so you don’t have to change cards at a crucial moment.
  • Last, and maybe most useful of all, shoot your photos in RAW format.  If you must, set it to shoot both RAW and JPG, but get RAW files. Your DSLR came with a software disc that has a program to convert files and you will be amazed at what you can do with it.  It’s another example of you making pictures that are in the other 20% and don’t match the 80% solution that programmer created for your JPG files out of the camera. Starting with the original RAW format will allow you to make the photograph you imagined.  Be aware that RAW files are usually 4 to 6 times bigger than JPG files – they include all the original information the camera captured before it compressed the file and deleted things the programmer guessed you might not need. 

Most outdoor sporting events happen in the middle of the day when the sun is high and shadows are harsh. Lots of photos end up with the sky over exposed or the players left dark and unrecognizable. The thing to realize is that caps and helmets shade faces at outdoor events so you have to get down low and shoot up to get their faces instead of down on their caps and helmets. 

Here are some suggestions for getting a few different sports to give you a sense of how you might approach different types of action:


  • If you can get inside the fence, position yourself near the net and shoot from a player’s forehand side.  You’ll get more shots of their face from that side.  If you end up on the backhand side you they will have their back to you and won’t look your way until they actually hit a backhand. 
  • Get as close to the ground as you can.  That low perspective will give you more sky and fewer people in the crowd who may be doing something distracting.
  • If you have to be outside the fence, then try to get high and shoot down on the opposite end of the court, over the net.  The player on the opposite end will almost always be facing you.
  • Shoot one player at a time. It is very hard to shoot both ends of a tennis court at the same time.
  • Use shutter priority (time-value on Canon), with an ISO value that gives you a wide aperture setting.  Anticipate the action -- watch the rackets! Shoot when the player begins to swing. If you can see the ball in the frame before you shoot, odds are it will have passed by the time you push the shutter! 
  • Use multi-shot (burst) mode to get several looks during the swing so you can find the most emotion in your shots. As Gretzky said, you miss 100% of the shot you don’t take. Be selective – keep the best and dump the rest.
  • You'll often get a great reaction shot, whether it is agony or thrill, after a particularly long point, or following a very dramatic return that is either in or out. Keep shooting!



  • This is a great sport for shots of fans.  Everybody gets emotionally involved in soccer.
  • Position yourself at the end of the field with the sun behind you and move from behind the goal to half-way between the goal and the side line.  The offensive team will always be running toward you and give you good opportunities for shots of their faces.  The teams will switch goals at the quarter so you will get both teams over the course of each half.
  • For action shots, follow the ball and use AI-Servo focus mode. Get as tight as you can on the ball and the player who is dribbling it.  A shot of the entire team spread all over the field is going to get ignored.
  • Kneel or sit down.  This will give your shot a great perspective, with less grass and players that seem to tower over the ball.
  • A big zoom lens is really helpful to get close shots of individual players. Use the longest lens you own, 300mm or more if you have it. A monopod is a big help for a big, heavy lens but be prepared to get out of the way of the players.



  • Set your shutter at 1/800 to stop water droplets in the air. If you are outdoors with a lot of light go on up to 1/1500.  Set your ISO level to give you the widest (lowest number) aperture your lens offers while getting a reasonable exposure.  A few cameras will allow you to set the shutter and aperture and automatically adjust your ISO but check your manual.  They sometimes limit the auto-ISO function to some minimal level like 400 that isn’t much help.
  • Leave your flash at home or save it for the awards ceremony.  A flash will interfere with the electronic timers.
  • For butterfly and breast stroke shoot from the end of the pool where they finish.  Get down on the deck, as close to the water level as practical but not in the way of the timers and officials.  Butterfly is the most dramatic stroke, with a swimmer’s arms outstretched and their head up for a breath.
  • For freestyle, shoot from the side where your swimmer breathes.  Get them as they turn their head for a breath.
  • For backstroke, try shooting from the end where they start.  Maybe a shot standing on the starter block, looking down on the swimmer as she starts.
  • Get down on the deck and shoot as though you are in the water with them.  Get into their world.   For young swimmers, you can get cool shots of them lifting their head to look at other swimmers to see where they are. You will get wet for this, so dress appropriately.
  • A lot of emotion may show up during the build up for a race and after it is finished, when the swimmers are on deck. Take some shots of team mates standing over the edge, cheering on a swimmer as they finish. You’ll get lots of excitement there.



I shot a floor hockey tournament that wasn’t quite as difficult as ice hockey but many of the principles apply (except for the Plexiglas) for indoor sports.

  • Scout out a spot to shoot from in advance.  This is a fast-moving indoor sport with lots of obstacles to making pictures.  Lighting is notoriously bad in everything but professional stadiums and you often have to shoot through Plexiglas that is dirty and scuffed up.  Consider standing in the bench area if the glass is really bad, but get a helmet.  Bring some glass cleaner and clean the Plexiglas at the ends of the rink, both inside and out, to give yourself a better chance at a shot. 
  • Use a zoom lens of 70-200 and a 300mm if you have it. 
  • Set your exposure before the game starts.  Ice will cause your DSLR to underexpose.  You need to use manual exposure here – yes that is the M setting on your camera.  Take a few shots before the game and use your camera’s histogram to check exposure.  You want the graph to be at the far right but not touching the edge.  Use the widest aperture setting available on your lens and a shutter speed of 1/250, which will usually stop the players’ motion but not necessarily the puck. You will probably need an ISO setting of 1600 – 3200.  Try a few shots to see what you can get away with.
  • Set your custom white balance for the type of lighting in the venue.  A lot of indoor sports facilities use some sort of gas vapor or fluorescent lights that pulse and your camera will flip in and out of color balance. You can correct color balance problems if you are using RAW format for your photos and setting this to be a constant temperature will save you a lot of time at the computer.
  • Try to stand at the end of the rink between the goal and the corner.  They will bring the puck to the goal, much of the action will happen in the corners, and you can get see their faces.  The closer you are to the floor, the better your chances will be for seeing through their masks.  With a long lens, you may get some great shots of the goalie at the opposite end of the rink.
  • Don’t forget to shoot the fans – this is another sport where everyone gets emotional.

You can see that every sport has a little twist to it, but they also have some common elements.  You can make your own adjustments to apply the soccer tips to football, hockey tips to basketball, tennis and swimming to track and field. I have not done much with motorsports or riding here, so pass along your own suggestions in some comments, so I can learn from this too.

Snapshots to Photographs - Good books and sites for useful photography info

June 08, 2012  •  Leave a Comment

Are you looking for some books on making better photographs?  Here are some references that have helped me quite a lot:

  • Learning to See Creatively (Design, Color & Composition in Photography) by Bryan Peterson, AMPHOTO Books
  • Understanding Exposure (How to shoot great photographs with a film or digital camera) by Bryan Peterson, AMPHOTO Books
  • The Simple Secret to Better Painting by Greg Albert, North Light Books

This last one is a very good explanation of composition for any artist working in two dimensional media.

If you can find it, the editors of Time-Life published the Life Library of Photography, a series of photography instruction books in the 1970s that were written by some of the best photographers of all time, although they are based on film. Titles include The Art of Photography, Photojournalism, Documentary Photography, Photographing Nature, Travel Photography, Caring for Photographs, Photographing Children, Color, and more. 

If you use Adobe Photoshop tools for your post-processing work, I like Philip Andrews’ books on how to use them.

Have you wondered about different cameras and how they compare?  Here’s a review site that is basically the “consumer reports” for digital cameras and even a few lenses.  There is a good user forum where you can learn a lot about cameras, lenses, and photographic techniques, although the people who frequent it are fairly intolerant of “newbies”.  You can learn a lot without asking any questions.


For a good place to ask questions of experienced amateurs and pros who are very willing to help, try the LinkedIn forums:



Do you sometimes wish you could get an unbiased opinion about why lenses for your DSLR differ so much in cost?  Would you like to get a good, unbiased comparison of “3rd Party” lenses?  While it started out reviewing Canon lenses, this site does a good job reviewing a lot of brands now.


A lot of people like the reviews at:



Would you like to use a lens for a vacation or a special event?  Maybe you would like to try a camera or lens before you buy.  I’ve bought a lens from this site and they are very reliable and fair.  They have a nice, unbiased one-paragraph review of almost everything they rent, too.


Are you getting small round shadows on your pictures?  Maybe you have some dust particles on your camera’s sensor.  Taking it to a camera store may be possible, but stores service departments are notoriously inconsistent and sending it off to the manufacturer may take a couple of weeks.  If you have a steady hand, here is an explanation of how you can clean your sensor yourself.


Where are the best places to buy camera gear? Try:

Adorama home page


The best place to go for technical explanations of artificial lighting is probably  http://strobist.blogspot.com/

If you’re a camera geek and want the best rumors about the cameras and lenses that will come out next, try



And here are some good tips about general camera maintenance:


Brian (the guy behind "the-digital-picture.com) also has a good article about processing pictures from your camera with this description about workflow:




Snapshots to Photographs - Avoid Ugly Babies in Your Vacation Shots

May 01, 2012

Do you fear your friends and family when they come back from a trip? Is it the one time they print all their pictures and head over to Archiver’s to make an album? Does that make you feel like you’re in a Seinfeld episode, wracking your brain for adjectives so you don’t call their “baby” ugly?  Of course, there are some beautiful vacation albums. I wonder about the thought that goes into snapping those pictures compared to the effort to place all the embellishments around them. Do the pictures highlight the sights and sounds and culture of the place?

For your next trip, you will not bore your victims, I mean friends – you won’t produce an ugly baby.  You could avoid it by not taking pictures but it’s a big trip so you plan to dig your dslr out of the back of the closet. True, last time you discovered the battery was dead and you couldn’t find the charger. Fortunately, your wife (didn’t Roseanne Barr say only someone with a vagina can find things?) found it in that pocket you never use.  On the second day, you found yourself fiddling with the controls when the “wow” happened so most of your photos were people turning away from you.

This next trip, prepare and be aware of your audience. Think about whether you want your photographs to tell the story of your trip. Maybe you want a special shot to enlarge and hang on the wall.  Will you print them 4 x 6 and put them in an album or post them online in Flickr or Facebook? Your point-n-shoot may be just fine 70-80% of the time. Are you looking for landscape or wildlife shots? You may want your dslr for a little more flexibility.

You can do a chronological recording that may be fun – a photo of what you pack, folded neatly before the trip and a photo of the pile of laundry by the washing machine could be the bookends of your story, with shots of the airport gate signs showing where you are going or the road sign of the mileage to your destination sprinkled through your pictures of kids and spouse and landmarks.  If you are flying, you might try for a shot of the city as you come in for a landing but the wing may be in your way. Make sure your camera is focused on the ground and not the window grime.

Don’t forget to make pictures of the local people, doing their jobs.  If you want local “color” that describes the culture you will probably find it in the people more than the buildings and landscape.  However, don’t forget to ask them – usually a wave and pointing to your camera is all you need to get a nod.  If they refuse or turn away, move on and ask someone else.  You may find it is easier if you ask them to take a picture of you and your companions and then ask for a picture of them.


I suggest you make a “shot” list for your trip.  Think about three layers for your photographs – establish the context with a foundation shot, bring your viewer closer with some mid-level shots, and discover some details with a close up. For example, you might bring in a wide view of the Grand Canyon, a shot of the steep cliff on the edge of the trail you walked down, and a shot of the bush you hid behind when you dealt with the effects of drinking too much coffee that morning.  Be sure to include any landmarks that represent the area, like the Magic Castle in Disney World or the Eifel Tower in Paris, or a special activity that defines the place, like horse racing in Kentucky or dancing a tango in Argentina.  Here is an example with 3 shots of Chicago landmark buildings, the skyline, the Museum of Science & Industry, and a lion from the 1893 World's Fair that stands in front of the Art Institute.

Chicago Skyline


Museum of Science & Industry


Art Institute Lion

Now that you have your shot list, what sort of camera gear do you need?  Now, stop.  Don’t go online and buy some new camera thing.  You should use the stuff you know best and it won’t be some new camera or lens unless you are planning pretty far in advance.  Even so, you should think about how many shots you may take with that new thing.  If you may only take 5% of your shots with that item then it may not be worth the cost or the weight to lug it around.

If you are going to Yellowstone, will you want pictures of the mountains and landscape, the wildlife and birds, the people standing there, or all of those things? Are you going to a city like Washington DC and will you want pictures inside the Smithsonian, the White House, or a church, as well as outside?  Will your camera handle all of those things?  Maybe you will want a long lens for catching some of the wolves off in the distance and a wide angle lens for a shot of Yellowstone falls. Of course, you can crop a shot down to make it look closer if you don’t have a long lens.  Do you need a flash?  What if the place doesn’t allow flash photography – do you know how to set your camera to take pictures in low light?

Once you decide on your basic shot list and the camera gear you need, spend some time practicing with that gear.  Travel photography is basically photojournalism, which involves catching emotions and events as they happen.  You rarely get a chance to ask the dancers to reenact a hula and you sure don’t want to pay to go to another luau so you can try your picture again. Know how your camera works so you don’t have to guess about how to get a shot.  Don’t forget basics like memory cards and batteries.  Do you want to carry a second battery so you are prepared if it runs down?  How many pictures can you store on your memory card?  Will you take any videos?  Those often chew through memory cards very quickly. 

You have arranged your shot list, organized your camera and accessories, and practiced with your gear.  You should have a bag to carry it while you are traveling and possibly while you are walking around.  I prefer a backpack over a standard camera bag so I don’t have a bag labeled “expensive camera, please grab it and run” when I go through airport security or sit down in a restaurant.  If you are so inclined, there are a number of companies that sell backpacks with extra padding for camera gear.  Personally, I like Lowepro and Gura Gear bags.  Think Tank makes some good camera bags, too.

You get to Hawaii or Yellowstone or New Orleans or Aruba and one day it rains. My advice – take your camera and the shower cap from the hotel bathroom or a hand towel to cover it. Some of the best days for photographs are cloudy and rainy. Bright sunlight makes for harsh shadows and tough photographs. Rain brings out colors in vegetation, cleans the streets, and improves the contrast in your shots.  I have sometimes hosed down an area of our garden in order to get that “after the rain” effect for photos. One thing is certain if you don’t have your camera, you will miss some of those people shots that define the culture of a place on your list.

Here are a few suggestions for the gear to take on your trip.  The basics:

  • Camera.  If you take a DSLR, I suspect you will have a standard zoom lens of about 17-85mm (consumer DSLR) or 24-105mm (pro DSLR)
  • Memory cards for about 200 to 250 shots per day and a video (if you use that feature)
  • Charger and a spare camera battery
  • Lens cloth and cleaner – this is probably the most important accessory you can bring, in case you do get caught in the rain.
  • Gallon sized plastic freezer bags and rubber bands to protect your camera in the rain.
  • Backpack. 

Some extras you may want:

  • Wide angle zoom lens for landscape or architecture, such as a 10-22mm (consumer DSLR) or 16-35mm (pro DSLR)
  • Telephoto zoom lens for long distance people shots or wild life, such as a 70-300mm.
  • Flash unit and spare batteries
  • Polarizing filters for your lenses, to reduce glare on sunny days
  • Camera rest, such as a mini tripod, bean bag (empty – you can fill it with rice, beans, or sand when you get there), monopod, or tripod
  • Binoculars, for wildlife or sports.  There are a lot of mini-sized, good quality binoculars available and you can see better with them than through your telephoto lens.
  • Spare camera – this is for photo fanatics and those Monk-like people among us who worry that their camera may break while on their trip of a life time.

You may have noticed that I prefer zoom lenses over “prime” or fixed length lenses for travel. Be careful to get good quality zooms but they offer flexibility and speed for photojournalism that is difficult to match by moving closer or farther from your subject with your feet.

Once you are back, you will probably have a lot of pictures to look through. The key here is to edit your collection to the best and most interesting shots and keep your viewers from rolling their eyes. The first thing to do is delete the blurred and badly exposed shots. Check that one you took from the plane window to see if it is blotchy from shooting through the window grime and dump it if it is not clear. Once you’ve gotten rid of the unsalvageble shots, rank your pictures from 1 to 5. In the end you should choose no more than 15 to 20 pictures to represent your week to your friends and family.  Even if you think you have other good shots, you should only show off your very best. Remember, every baby is cute but not every baby is pretty or handsome. The true test of whether your pictures are well received is going to happen when you go on a subsequent trip and people ask to see your photos. If you burn their hand on the hot stove, they won’t want to do it again.

Have a great time on your trip and let me know where I can see your photographs.

Snapshots to Photographs - Lighting your Shots

April 21, 2012  •  Leave a Comment

Does your camera have an internal flash?  Do you let the camera decide when to fire that flash?  And do your pictures come back with harsh shadows or dark areas behind your subject? Do people in your snapshots have red eyes?  Your flash may be hurting your pictures more than helping.  Here are some hints about artificial lighting that may help turn your snapshots into photographs, with lighting that enhances your subject.

Your point-n-shoot camera flash is capable of filling in shadows within about 12 feet – don’t think it will light up a gym or stadium for sports or a show. An internal flash will always be pointed directly at your subject, so use it sparingly to do just that (fill in shadows) or to highlight a close subject.  When you do use it, it will become a beacon that will splash both light and shadows all over your photograph. Here is an example - the shadow is a subtle distraction that you can avoid.

There are a couple of techniques you can consider that will allow you to avoid those shadows. First, position your subject so she is not close to a wall or furniture and then get relatively close so any shadow falls below your shot. Position yourself and your camera no higher than your subject’s head and shoulders – so if they are sitting then you should kneel or sit down too. In the shot below, I turned the camera to a vertical orientation and moved the flash so the shadow fell completely behind Leatha's left shoulder.  The contrast helps highlight her smiling features.


If there is light in the room, don’t even bother with your flash.  One reason for using it is because your subject’s face may be in a shadow – well have them turn to the light if you can.  Does your camera have an “auto ISO” mode?  That actually works very well and adjusts the camera to available light.  Just watch to be sure it does not go over about ISO 800, because that will introduce graininess (noise) in your pictures so that’s the time to use a flash. 

Assuming you do need a flash in some situations, do you use an external flash that attaches to your camera or do you use the internal flash?  Lining up a light source beside your lens for peoples to look at is going to create that red reflection from the back of their eyes and produce a huge black shadow behind them.  One of the primary contributors to red eyes and shadows is the proximity of the flash to your lens. The more you can do to move your flash far from your camera lens, the better.  If you don’t have an external flash, then try to keep your subject away from the walls where a shadow will be thrown.

With an external flash there are a couple of things you can do.  First, try bouncing the light off the ceiling above your subject.  If the ceiling is a light color and relatively low, you can turn it into a huge light source and the shadows will be very low on the floor.  Of course, this won’t work if the person is wearing a hat, as the lady in my first example did, because the hat will create a shadow over her face.  If the ceiling is too high for the power of your flash or has lots of interruptions (eg fans, vents, etc.) then it may not be very effective.  That’s when you are forced to direct the flash at the person herself, so use some the techniques in the last couple of paragraphs.

There are a couple of accessories available that can make your flash less harsh (mimize shadows). You may have seen pros at weddings with white colored bulb “diffusers” on their flash units.  Those basically blast the light all over the room in hopes of having it bounce back off the ceiling and walls.  Personally, I think that weakens your flash unnecessarily and only works in a relatively low ceilinged and “close walled” room.  I like the ProMax System from LumiQuest.com.  It attaches to your flash unit with Velcro and adds height to your flash unit to change the angle of the light while broadening the light source from the size of your flash head (about 1x3 inches) to something around 6x9 inches.  It bounces 80% of the light off the ceiling and puts 20% directly on your subject to suppress shadows from above. The system comes with a variety of reflector attachments that allow you to bounce and diffuse the light directly onto your subject so it is very flexible for different environments. 

Finally, you should be aware that all light fixtures and flashes create light in a limited color spectrum that your eyes will adjust and so you think it is “natural”. Film cameras are able to adapt and even blend light sources. In that sense, it is analogous to analog recording rather than digital.  Digitizing anything from sound to images is necessarily based on sampling small bits of the light. Your digital camera will try to balance the color of the light samples in your photo but the internal sensor sometimes over analyzes the situation and may get confused with different types of light sources.  The primary color spectrums of the basic light sources are:

  1. Sunlight = white
  2. Incandescent light bulbs and camera flash = yellow
  3. CFL and fluorescent = green
  4. Tungsten = blue

The consequence of all this is that colors in your photos, especially skin tones, will likely be wrong if your subject is lit by sunlight from a window and a table lamp with a CFL bulb. If you add a flash in that situation, you’ve got white, green, and yellow light sources and flesh tones look sickly and green.  The more you can do to avoid blending light sources when you click the shutter, the better. In the situation I described, you may get better results if you turn off the lamp and rely on the sunlit window and your flash.  If you have some software that came with your camera, Adobe Photoshop or some other photo editing software, you can correct this color balance problem with your computer but you have to spend some time on it. 

So, now you know a little about flash photography and artificial lighting.  This is one of the most difficult areas to master because each camera brand handles light in a little different way so you have to experiment with it yourself.  For most people, that doesn’t happen until they are trying to get a picture of the young couple going out for the Homecoming dance. So do a little homework and try a few of these tricks for yourself.  You don’t have to pay for the shots and you can even delete them from your computer after you figure out how you need to set up your camera.

Happy shooting.

Snapshots to Photographs - Dial In Your Subject

April 02, 2012  •  Leave a Comment

If you are using a camera instead of a camera-phone, then it probably has some settings that you may have wondered about. A quick turn of a dial can create some nice effects and improve your shots if you know a little about what they do.  What can the different modes do?  I’ll show you in just a minute but let me explain a couple points about how it works.

Recall from my last article that the lens of your camera works like the iris of your eye.  As the camera’s aperture (opening in the lens) widens it lets in more light and more of the foreground and background is blurred and as it narrows it lets in less light but more of the foreground and background is clear and focused.  The “mode” settings tell your camera how you want to handle different situations and allow you to create these effects in your photo.  If you use a DSLR you probably have both the mode settings and manual controls to select the f-stop, shutter speed, and ISO.

The mode settings may be a part of the menu of controls or could appear on an actual dial on the camera.  The modes are often disguised in a variety of ways with icons like a flower for close up photos (sometimes called “macro”), a mountain for landscape photos, head and shoulders outline for “normal” shots, and so on.  The menu may also allow you to select your ISO setting to increase the camera’s sensitivity for low light situations.  Check the manual that came with your camera or do a little exploring through the dials and menus. 

Occasionally you get a few extra modes and I’ll get the “Sport” setting (usually a stick figure of a runner) out of the way first.  This one causes the camera to use a fast shutter speed to freeze fast moving subjects so they aren’t blurred. The camera will automatically open the aperture wide to have the correct exposure and cause the things that are very close and very far away to be unfocused.  “Landscape” or “Mountain” setting works in the opposite way and adjusts the aperture (size of the lens opening) to make objects both close and far away appear sharp and in focus and lengthens the shutter speed to provide enough light for a correct exposure .  This could cause moving objects such as leaves moving in a breeze to be blurred

If you are interested in testing this, you can see the effects your camera can create by laying a newspaper down on the floor and taking a picture in each mode while focusing across the page from one side.  You ought to be able to see how the lines of text are blurred up close, clear in the middle, and blurred at the back of the photo. 

OK, now here is an example from my garden. It isn't a very pretty flower but it demonstrates my point.  Would you like to know how to create a photo like the one below?

I propped a piece of cardboard behind that lily and used the “flower” or “macro” setting so the ridges of the cardboard are out of focus and basically invisible.  Yes, I used a DSLR but you can do this with the mode setting on your point-n-shoot.

In fact, if you prefer, you can use the settings to blur the background items without the cardboard, but the effect will depend on how your camera’s mode is set.  If you have a DSLR, you may want to experiment with the manual settings to create the effects in the next couple of photos:

F-stop = 9, or the “portrait” setting


f-stop = 4, or the “flower” (macro) setting


Go out and experiment with your settings and you can come up with all kinds of ways to make your subject pop out for your viewer. 

Good luck and happy shooting!

January February March (2) April (2) May (1) June (1) July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November (1) December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December
January February March April May June July August September October November December